Why does God use Babylon as the example for everything to be rejected if you are striving to live a godly life?
Babylon is referred to throughout the Bible, from Genesis 10 when mankind set out to create his own governments and culture to the history of Israel’s kings. Then we read about Babylon again in Revelation, the last book of the Bible, where God decrees Babylon and all she stands for will ultimately be destroyed.
Babylon was an actual city on the banks of the Euphrates river, established about 100 years after the flood by Nimrod, the son of Cush and grandson of Noah. It was situated in Shinar, which corresponds to the location of Iraq today.
Nimrod was a mighty warrior, who fought with others for rulership and supremacy. He is the first human recorded in the Bible to be a king -- one who ruled over others. Jesus would later refer to the rule of such kings in Luke 22:25-26 as “lording it over others” rather than acting to the benefit of their subjects.
Some have speculated the name ‘Nimrod’ could mean ‘rebellious’ and is more a description of the person than a name. Others have suggested Nimrod may have been Sargon the great king of the Sumerians, but we don’t really know. In Genesis 10:9 Nimrod is described as a ‘mighty hunter before the Lord’. An alternate rendering of this phrase could be ‘against the Lord’.
Under Nimrod’s leadership what the Babylonians wrote, taught and believed seriously contradicted the Bible. In Genesis 11 we are also told the people of that time disobeyed God’s instructions to spread out and colonise after the flood. Instead they gathered together in one place and attempted to build the tower of Babel in rebellion against God.
The spirit of Babylon was the spirit dominating the whole world when Abrahan was called out of the idolatry and confusion to learn and teach about the true God. He was not called because he was righteous, but to become righteous and be the father of a nation to whom God would reveal His true character and law.
That nation was ancient Israel, but Israel and Judah failed to keep the covenant with God and rebelled --- symbolically returning to Babylon. God therefore allowed them to be conquered and enslaved by none other than Babylon! They had not resisted and overcome the “world” around them but had been overcome by it. Their story has been recorded as an example for us today. If you don’t overcome you will be overcome.
Coming out of Babylon -- overcoming the world -- is not a matter of where you are. It’s a matter of what you do and how you think. Daniel was in Babylon, but he was not of Babylon. He set a great example of not being overcome by Babylon’s ways and holding fast to the truth.
God’s desire is that we overcome the world (John 17:12-19), but we are not whisked away to a spiritual Shangri La… instead we are sent into the world. Daily acts of overcoming, even when small, can be sometimes difficult and tedious, but dedicated Christians are part of a grander scheme. We might not feel we are like Abraham being called into a new land, to live a different way… but we are! We are part of God’s plan that covers all of human history, and culminates in a glorious goal. This is what we must look forward to and strive towards.
Herod the Great
Herod had ruled the province of Judea, which encompassed most of the geographical areas of the former kingdoms of Israel and Judah, for almost 40 years at the time Jesus Christ was born, with secular history and archaeology confirming his reign (Matthew 2:1-3, 7-8).
He was a great builder, initiating construction projects in at least 20 cities or towns in Israel and more than 10 in foreign cities: "Archaeological excavations have uncovered a surprisingly large amount of evidence pertaining to Herod the Great ....an Idumean who, in 41 B.C., was granted provisional rule of Galilee by Mark Antony [the friend of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra´s last lover] .... In 30 B.C. Octavian (Caesar Augustus) affirmed Herod's rule over Judea, Samaria, and Galilee .... Herod remained in power until his death in 4 B.C…." (Archaeology and the New Testament, 1997, p. 91).
But Herod was not just known for his great building, political and military skills, but also for his great cruelty. The Bible records his utter disregard for human life by describing his reaction to the birth of Jesus. When his scheme to identify the newborn Messiah failed (verses 7-8, 12), Herod lashed out with great violence: "Then Herod … sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all its districts, from two years old and under [the approximate age of Jesus], according to the time which he had determined from the wise men" (verse 16).
This massacre in Bethlehem was not out of character for Herod, who also had many members of his family put to death: “Herod in his rage over his family rivalries and jealousies put to death the two sons of Mariamne [his wife] (Aristobulus and Alexander), Mariamne herself, and Antipater, another son and once his heir, besides the brother and mother of Mariamne (Aristobulus, Alexandra) and her grandfather John Hyrcanus." (Word Pictures in the New Testament, Bible Explorer Software, 1997).
The New Testament description of Herod the Great is thus confirmed by what historians and archaeologists have found concerning his rulership, building projects, political strength and uncontrollable wrath toward anyone threatening his kingship.
The Census of Caesar Augustus
Luke, a meticulous historian, introduces other famous personages in his account of the birth of Christ. "And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered … So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city" (Luke 2:1-3).
Ancient papyrus census decrees have been found for the years 20, 34, 48, 62 and 104. These show a wide-ranging census normally took place every 14 years, although local counts were, at times, taken more frequently. A papyrus in the British Museum describes a census similar to Luke's account, taken in 104, in which people were ordered to return to their birthplaces: "Gaius Vibius Mazimus, Prefect of Egypt: Seeing that the time has come for the house to house census, it is necessary to compel all those ... to return to their own homes, that they may both carry out the regular order of the census and may also attend diligently to the cultivation of their allotments" (Frederick G. Kenyon, Greek Papyri in the British Museum, 1907, plate 30).
Joseph's Occupation in Nazareth
Joseph was a skilled craftsman who worked not only with wood, but with stone masonry. The usual term translated as "carpenter" in the Bible (Mark 6:3) is from the Greek term ‘tekton’, which has the broader meaning of 'artisan,' referring to a skilled worker who works on hard material such as wood or stone or even horn or ivory. “In Jesus' day construction workers were not as highly specialized as in today's workforce. For example, the tasks performed by carpenters and masons could easily overlap" (Richard A. Batey, Jesus & the Forgotten City: New Light on Sepphoris and the Urban World of Jesus, p. 76).
Although Nazareth was a small village in Galilee of no more than a few hundred inhabitants, Joseph and Jesus likely found steady work in the city of Sepphoris four miles away, where huge construction projects were transforming the city into a large, regional centre.
Recent archaeological excavations in Sepphoris show it to have been a bustling, prosperous city during the years Jesus grew up in nearby Nazareth. Shirley Jackson Case, professor of New Testament at the University of Chicago, remarks “.... It requires no very daring flight of the imagination to picture the youthful Jesus seeking and finding employment in the neighboring city of Sepphoris. But whether or not he actually labored there, his presence in the city on various occasions can scarcely be doubted..." (Batey, pp. 70-71).
These historical records help us better understand the background of Christ's teachings, which included illustrations drawn not just from farming and animal husbandry, but also construction, rulers and nobility, the theater, government, finance and other aspects of city life.